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         334             A.H. Himes / Ocean & Coastal Management 50 (2007) 329–351

                                Fig. 2. The Egadi Islands Marine Reserve.

         profile environmental organizations. Rarely were local peoples’ issues, ideas, or objections
         considered. In the Egadi Islands, the main proponents of the MPA were local
         environmental groups that successfully lobbied the Ministry of Environment to create a
         protected area to eliminate the threat of oil drilling in local waters. Local residents and
         fishermen were not given the opportunity to comment on MPA design and most have been
         adamantly opposed to its existence from the beginning. This is important because local
         residents and fishermen interact with local resources on a daily basis and their actions are
         directly correlated with regulatory compliance. They feel that the MPA as it exists is
         worthless and refuse to believe it could benefit them in the long run under current
         management, all of which assists in the EIMR’s failure to meet management objectives.
           The EIMR is partitioned into four zones, A, B, C, and D, with varying levels of
         restriction. Zone A can be considered a no-take/no-entry area where only permitted
         research can take place. Zone B allows only general non-consumptive uses (e.g.,
         swimming, boating beyond 500 m from the coast). In Zone C, all non-consumptive uses
         and permitted recreational and commercial fishing are allowed, with the exception of
         trawling. In Zone D, all activity is allowed; only trawling has limitations. At inception, the
         EIMR was given six stated objectives: (1) protect the local environment, (2) protect the
         local biological resources, (3) educate the public about the unique characteristics of local
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