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                             Ocean & Coastal Management 50 (2007) 329–351

          Performance indicators in MPA management: Using

            questionnaires to analyze stakeholder preferences

                                      Amber H. Himes
                  CEMARE, University of Portsmouth, Boat House No. 6, College Road, H.M. Naval Base,
                                        Portsmouth P01 3LJ, UK
                                     Available online 7 February 2007


            Concerns about marine protected area (MPA) ecological and social effectiveness have led to a
          growing interest in conducting management evaluations. The variety of stakeholder interests and
          needs calls into question the typical notion of MPA ‘success’ and suggests that managers need a
          practical set of techniques to measure performance and evaluate trade-offs. This study explores how
          success can be analyzed from the compilation of differing stakeholder viewpoints. Qualitative data
          was collected through interviews with stakeholders to explore the state of an Italian MPA, selection
          of performance indicators to evaluate the MPA, and whether it can be deemed a success according to
          those indicators. The results show that stakeholder groups hold significantly different preferences for
          biological, economic and socio-cultural performance indicators in judging MPA performance. The
          elicitation of stakeholder preferences here is an important first step in understanding the criteria
          through which stakeholders view MPA management.
          r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

          1. Introduction

            As governments and organizations around the world promote the establishment of
          protected areas to preserve biodiversity and prevent environmental degradation,
          recognition of the existence of both environmental and societal values held by stakeholder
          groups has increased. Many authors have discussed the importance of the role that
          stakeholders play in achieving successful marine protected areas (MPAs) [1–4]. Before

            Corresponding author at. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 6010 Hidden Valley Road, Carlsbad, CA 92011, USA.
          Tel.: +1 760 431 9440.
            E-mail address:

          0964-5691/$ - see front matter r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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