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         338             A.H. Himes / Ocean & Coastal Management 50 (2007) 329–351

         Table 2
         Respondent identification of the most important threats to local resources
         Primary category          Secondary category
         Resource extraction       Overexploitation             Modernization
                                   Fishing (recreational and commercial)  Petroleum mining
         Pollution                 Noise from ferries           Vessel discharge
                                   Garbage left on beaches      Boat discards
         Inadequate/insufficient management  Lack of enforcement  Bad organization
                                   Insufficient regulations      Regulations too restrictive
                                   Lack of management           Lack of funding
                                   Lack of political support
         Lack of community value   Local disinterest            Ignorance of tourists and locals
                                   Lack of awareness            Lack of local benefits
                                   Lack of community involvement
         Illegal activities        Trawling                     Boating in no-entry zones
         Boat traffic               Shipping traffic              Ballast water exchange
                                   Recreational boating         Anchoring
         Environmental degradation  Extinction of fish species   Irresponsible construction
                                   Overuse of local habitats
         Tourism                   Mass tourism                 Diving

         frequently, is expected to significantly affect the local fish resource base. Fishers also
         mentioned a variety of other threats including fishing in general, overexploitation, other
         illegal activities, trash, noise pollution, discharge, boating, lack of enforcement, bad
         organization, insufficient regulations, environmental degradation, and shipping ballast
         water exchange (Table 2). It should be noted that all of the threats that fishers noted are
         either directly or indirectly related to the health of local fish stocks that the fishing sector is
         dependent on.
           Tourism, maritime traditions and the marine environment are the most important
         resources for local residents of the Egadi Islands. A significant percentage of the local
         economy is based on the summer tourism season; without it, the local community would
         surely undergo significant economic hardship. Moreover, local maritime traditions,
         specifically annual tuna fishing rituals and the artisanal fishing industry and consequently
         the environment in which they are based, are at the core of the local culture and have
         provided the backbone of the community for hundreds of years. Due to the importance of
         these resources, local residents have become aware of many recently strengthening threats
         that could damage them. The most important threats to them are pollution, excessive
         resource extraction, mass tourism, and inadequate management of the MPA; however,
         many also note that trawling and environmental degradation are causing serious harm to
         the local marine environment. Local residents identified pollution as a threat more than
         any other, and, incidentally, twice that of any other group.
           Researchers and the MPA’s managers are outsiders to the local community and thus are
         expected to have a more wide-ranging view of what local resources are important and what
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