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394 A. H. Himes

to create fishery exclusion zones aimed at stock repopulation in the Gulfs of Castellammare,
Catania, and Patti. As stated in the associated legislation, these two bodies are respon-
sible for the management and upkeep of the GCFR. However, there is no managing
authority that is based in the Gulf of Castellammare or specifically designated to man-
age the fishery reserve. Therefore, there is no truly active management of the GCFR. It
must be mandated at the regional level.

     Since the establishment of the fishery reserves, numerous biological studies based
on annual monitoring of biomass fluctuation have shown a positive reaction by the
marine environment inside the Gulf of Castellammare to the presence of the fishery
reserve. A study measuring fish biomass increase after the first four years indicated an
increase in biomass for all species considered, from a 1.2-fold increase for the musky
octopus to a 497-fold increase for the gurnard (Pipitone et al., 2000a). Similar results
were found in biomass studies after eight years of the trawl ban (Pipitone et al., 2001;
D’Anna, Badalamenti, & Pipitone, 2001). Furthermore, Whitmarsh et al. (2002) found
that “the prohibition on trawling led to stock recovery and improved financial returns
for the artisanal fishermen who have been permitted to operate within the restricted

Egadi Islands Marine Reserve (EIMR)

The Egadi Islands are located directly west of the city of Trapani at the westernmost
point of Sicily (Figure 1). The reserve encompasses three islands, Favignana, Marettimo,
and Levanzo, and two rocky outcroppings, Formica and Maraone. The total length of
protected coastline is approximately 22 km and the reserve is approximately 50,000 ha
and consists of four zones of increasing restrictions (see below for a description of
regulations) (Kelleher, Bleakley, & Wells, 1995). Fishers in each village have access to
ports on each island provided by the provincial government. As in the Gulf of Castellammare,
the majority are recreational fishers and small-scale artisanal fishers using trammel nets,
purse seines, hand lines, and set nets (Table 1.

Evolution of the Reserve. The reserve surrounds the archipelago of the Egadi Islands
stretching westward from offshore of Trapani in an oval shape encompassing all five of
the islands in the archipelago. Law 979/1982 (Agreement on the Defense of the Sea)
was the first attempt by the Italian government to protect areas of its national waters. It
identified 20 reserves to be established throughout Italy within two years after the law
was written. However, there were not sufficient resources to make all 20 a reality imme-
diately; consequently, the EIMR was not instituted until 1991. It is the largest marine
reserve established in Italy to date and the second largest marine reserve in the Mediter-
ranean (Kelleher, Bleakley, & Wells, 1995).

Regulations. The EIMR was created under national legislation (Law 979/1982) and is
therefore officially under the control of the Ministry of the Environment, which then
delegates responsibility for management. As in all other nationally governed MPAs, the
EIMR is partitioned off into four zones, A, B, C, and D, with varying levels of restric-
tions. Zoning within the reserve allows for a multi-use aspect of marine resources in the
management plan of any regulated area. The zone restrictions range from permitting
only limited types of activity such as diving, research, and swimming (zone A), restric-
tions on navigation within 500 m of the coast and fishing in general and prohibition of
trawling and spearfishing (zone B), prohibition only of using trawling gear (zone C),
and allowing all stakeholders to use the reserve resources within limits set by the man-
aging body (zone D).
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