Page 4 - HimesAH(2003)
P. 4

392 A. H. Himes

each case study: (1) the impact of these MPAs on the local fishing community, (2) how
well the local management regimes are incorporating local stakeholders in management,
and (3) the overall effectiveness of current management and regulations. In conclusion,
recommendations are made regarding how to improve the management of both MPAs,
and for MPAs in general, in order to obtain better conservation results from manage-
ment plans. Although this article focuses on the effects of reserves in two specific case
studies, the conclusions and recommendations may also be generalized to other MP As
in rural, small island settings experiencing similar problems.


Gulf of Castellammare Fishery Reserve (GCFR)

The Gulf of Castellammare, a broad, crescent-shaped bay, is located on the northwest
coast of Sicily west of Palermo (Figure 1). Its coastline is over 70 km long and its
surface area is approximately 30,000 ha, making it one of the widest bays in Sicily
(Pipitone et al., 2000a). The Gulf is bordered by five villages, from San Vito Lo Capo
on the Capo San Vito peninsula marking the westernmost point to Terrasini at Capo
Rama marking the easternmost point. Each of these fishing villages has a publicly oper-
ated port to accommodate its artisanal and recreational fishers. The majority of the fish-
ers who are active in the Gulf are small-scale artisanal fishers from the local villages
using trammel nets, small purse seines, and long lines. Over 70 commercially viable
species are caught and sold locally (Pipitone et al. (2000a) (Table 1).

Evolution of the Reserve. The Gulf of Castellammare was established as a fishery re-
serve in 1990, along with two other Sicilian gulfs with important artisanal fisheries, the
Gulf of Catania on the central eastern coast of Sicily and the Gulf of Patti located on the
northeastern corner of Sicily. The Sicilian Regional Government imposed the fishery
reserves in order to “rebuild the severely depleted demersal stock; and eliminate the
conflict between the trawlers and the small-scale artisanal vessels operating in the Gulf”
(Whitmarsh et al., 2000).

Regulations. In 1990, under regional law, the Gulf was completely closed off to all
bottom-towed gears, from the western side of the Gulf from the town of Scopello (Torre
dell’Uzzo) to Capo Rama on the eastern side. The banned area covers approximately
20,000 ha, 30% of the Gulf. Currently, artisanal and recreational fishers are the only
categories of fishers allowed to fish within the boundaries of the reserve. As a result, the
few commercial trawling vessels that remain are registered in Terrasini and Castellammare
del Golfo and can be seen trawling in the outer reaches of the Gulf as well as trawling
directly along the limits of the fishery reserve attempting to catch any biomass spillover.

     Enforcement was designed to incorporate all local enforcement officials with access
to vessels capable of patrolling the area. Enforcement officials include members of the
Carabinieri (military police), the Guardia Costiera (coast guard), the Capitaneria (port
authority), and the Guardia Finanza (charged with protection of the economic interests
of Italy and the EU). In theory, each division should have vessels frequently patrolling
the Gulf; however, active enforcement only occurred in the initial years of the trawling
ban. Currently, enforcement officials are never seen patrolling the Gulf.

Management. In 1987, the Regional Councilor for Co-operation, Commerce, Handicraft
and Fishing and the Regional Council for Fishing were empowered by legislative decree
to create a regional plan for fish stock repopulation. A component of the final plan was
   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9