Page 9 - CAPPARIS_2006
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130                                      Annals of the
                                                   Missouri Botanical Garden

          Pseudocroton Mu ¨ll. Arg. Flora 55: 24. 1872. TYPE:  very lax). Mediterranean Europe, North Africa,
              Pseudocroton tinctorius Mu ¨ll.         Middle East into India [Afghanistan, Albania,
          Quadrella (DC.) J. S. Presl, in Berchtold & J. S. Presl.,  Algeria, Azerbaijan, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,
              Prirozenosti Rostlin 2: 260. 1825. TYPE: Quadrella  India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan,
              crotonoides (Kunth) J. S. Presl. (5 Capparis crotonoides  Mongolia, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia,
              Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 5: 95. 1821).      Spain, Syria, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine,
          Sodada Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab: 81. 1775. TYPE: Sodada  Uzbekistan, Yemen] ......... ..... 8. C. sicula
              decidua Forssk.                      9b. Shrub procumbent or somewhat erect; stipules
          Uterveria Bertoloni, Pl. Nov. Hort. Bonon. 2: 8. 1839. TYPE:  usually weak or vestigial, rarely stout; indument
              Uterveria frondosa Bertol.              on leaves always very lax. Mediterranean Europe,
                                                      Middle East into Turkey [France, Greece, Italy,
                                                      Spain, Turkey] . . . .......... .... 9. C. spinosa
          Capparis section Capparis TYPE: Capparis spinosa L.  8b. Flowers slightly zygomorphic; abaxial sepal
                                                      slightly galeate only to 1.4 cm long, to 0.6 cm
            A total of 10 species and 12 subspecies of economic
                                                      deep. Middle East [Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq,
          relevance are recognized, distributed in the tropical,  Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkmenistan] ......
          subtropical, and Mediterranean zones of both hemi-  .... .......... .......... .. 7. C. parviflora
          spheres. Widely represented in Asia, and reaching  2b. Stipules mostly antrorse in orientation ....... . 10
                                                   10a. Shrub pendulous; mature leaves ovate; texture
          southern Europe, eastern, northern, and southwestern
                                                      subcoriaceous; stipules curved. North Africa
          Africa. A key for the species and recognized
                                                      [Algeria, Chad, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia] .....
          nothospecies of Capparis sect. Capparis is presented  .... .......... .......... ..... 6. C. ovata
          here.                                    10b. Shrub erect; mature leaves oblong to obovate;
                                                      texture somewhat coriaceous; stipules setaceous.
                                                      South Africa [Namibia] ....... . 3. C. hereroensis
          AND AFRICA
          1a. Plants unarmed, or with stipules vestigial or  1. Capparis aegyptia Lam., Encycl. Method. Bot. I:
              caducous. Mediterranean Europe and North  605. 1783. Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam.)
              Africa [Albania, Algeria, Croatia, Greece, Italy,  Boiss., Fl. orient. 1: 420. 1867. TYPE: [Egypt]
              Libya, Malta, Spain, Turkey] ..... .. 5. C. orientalis
          1b. Plants always spiny . .......... .......... . 2  ‘‘Lipi a ´ observe ´ ce Caprier en Egypte (v.s. in herb
          2a. Stipules retrorse to horizontally oriented ....... . 3  Isn.)’’ (lectotype, designated here, P-JU!: speci-
          3a. Leaf texture somewhat fleshy .... .......... . 4  men on sheet 11,248 right).
          4a. Twigs yellow or gray-green, not glaucous, without
              waxy bloom; stipules golden yellow, not de-  Capparis sinaica Veill., in Duhamel, Traite ´ Arbr. Arbust. Ed.
              current. Middle East [Afghanistan, Iran, Oman,  2, Vol. I: 144. 1801. TYPE: [Egypt] ‘‘Habite. L’Arabie
              Tajikistan, United Arab Emirates]. . ........  pe ´tre ´e, sur le Mont Sinai et les montagnes qui
              ..... .......... ......... 4. C. mucronifolia  l’environnent, aupre `s du village du Pharagou, et sur
          4b. Twigs green to red-purple, or glaucous due to  les chemins entre le Mont Sinai et le cha ˆteau ou la ville
              a waxy covering; stipules orange, decurrent .... . 5  de Tor, situe ´s sur la mer Rouge, ou ´ il a e ´te ´ observe ´ par
          5a. Shrubs erect; stipules strongly decurrent. Medi-  Belo ´n, Rauwolf et Shaw’’ (lectotype, t. 112 in Shaw,
              terranean Europe, North Africa, Middle East into  Cat. Pl. Variis Afr. 1738!, designated by Rivera et al.
              Turkey [Algeria, Egypt, Greece, Israel, Jordan,  2003a: 308–309).
              Lebanon, Morocco, Spain, Syria, Turkey] .....  Capparis deserti (Zohary) Ta ¨ckh. & Boulos, Publ. Cairo
              ..... .......... .......... .. 10. C. zoharyi  Univer. Herb., 5: 14. 1972 [1974]. Capparis spinosa L.
          5b. Shrub procumbent, or somewhat erect or pendu-  var. deserti Zohary, Bull. Res. Coun. Israel 8D: 56.
              lous; stipules decurrent to not decurrent ....... . 6  1960. TYPE: [Israel] Wadi Nosz, entrance to Wadi
          6a. Shrub pendulous; leaves lanceolate to ovate-  Lehiani (Bir Derheba), 27 Mar. 1944, P. H. Davis & N.
              lanceolate. North Africa [Algeria, Chad, Libya,  Feinbrun 5076–7 (holotype, HUJ!).
              Morocco, Tunisia] . . .......... .... 6. C. ovata
          6b. Shrub procumbent or somewhat erect; leaves  Shrub somewhat erect, glabrous; twigs straight, up
              rounded or obovate to ovate ..... .......... . 7
          7a. Shrub procumbent; twigs purple-red; without  to 3 m long, gray or blue green due to waxy cover that
              waxy bloom; leaves rounded, tip acute, base  appears over the entire plant; internodes 1.5–4 cm;
              rounded to cordate. North Africa [Morocco] . . .  stipules curved, retrorse, slightly decurrent, orange,
              ..... .......... .......... .. 2. C. atlantica  0.3–0.4 cm long, 0.1–0.2 cm wide at the base. Leaves
          7b. Shrubs somewhat erect; twigs gray-green or  obovate to ovate, 2–3 3 1.8–3 cm, somewhat fleshy;
              glaucous, with waxy bloom; leaves obovate to
              ovate, bases and apices rounded. North Africa,  leaf veins not prominent; bases and apices rounded;
              Middle East into India [Egypt, India, Israel,  mucro very small, 0.1–0.5 mm, straight or curved;
              Jordan, Saudi Arabia] ......... .. 1. C. aegyptia  petioles 0.5–1 cm. Flower buds rounded; floral
          3b. Leaf texture herbaceous ........ .......... . 8  pedicels stout, 2.5–4 cm; flowers slightly zygomor-
          8a. Flowers zygomorphic; abaxial sepal helmet-
              shaped, 1.7–2.5 cm long, 0.7–1.2 cm deep ..... . 9  phic; abaxial (odd) sepal slightly galeate at apex, 1.4–
          9a. Shrub procumbent; stipules usually stout; pubes-  1.6 cm long, 0.6–0.8 cm deep; stamens 30 to 80,
              cence on leaves from lax to very dense (rarely  anthers 1.2–1.5 mm, with rounded apices. Fruit
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