Page 8 - CAPPARIS_2006
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Volume 93, Number 1                     Inocencio et al.                    129
            2006                                    Revision of Capparis Sect. Capparis

            shape was recognized as a useful character for  corymbose or racemose inflorescences. Flower buds
            identifying living, herbarium, and processed material  may have acute or rounded apices. Flowers are
            (Inocencio et al., 2002); once characterized in fresh  bisexual and more or less zygomorphic. Four green
            material, it is relatively easy to determine in  sepals are always present, free, concave, having a more
            herbarium specimens by re-hydrating the anthers  or less galeate (helmet-shaped) abaxial sepal. Four
            and using a stereomicroscope. All the selected  white or pink petals are always present, free, oval,
            characters were studied in mature specimens with  frequently unequal. From 50 to numerous stamens.
            open flowers and ripe fruit. The quantitative char-  Anthers are small to large (Table 2) with a rounded or
            acters are expressed using SI metric units.  sharp apex; androphore absent. Nectary situated in
                                                    the floral disk, between the insertion of the petals and
            PLANT HABIT IN CAPPARIS SECT. CAPPARIS  sepals, triangular in form, apex directed toward the
                                                    flower’s interior. Nectary morphology can be a highly
              Capparis comprises small trees, shrubs, or geo-
                                                    valuable taxonomic resource, but only available in
            phytes. All species of section Capparis are erect,
                                                    fresh or well-preserved material (Inocencio et al.,
            procumbent, or pendulous shrubs (Fig. 1). Some (C.
                                                    2002). A gynophore is present, usually exceeding the
            sicula) behave as a true geophyte, with underground,
                                                    stamens in length. The ovary is ellipsoid, situated at
            branched perennial stems and decaying annual aerial
                                                    the end of the gynophore, unilocular, with (2 to)4(to
            parts (ge ´othamne, sensu Bocquet & Aeschiman,  10) placentas.
                                                    FRUITS IN CAPPARIS SECT. CAPPARIS
                                                      The fruit is an oblong, ovoid, ellipsoid, or globose
              Plants glabrous or with simple trichomes as the
            indument. Trichome types and the density of  berry, that is green in color with well-defined
            pubescence on various parts of the plant are useful  longitudinal nerves, along which dehiscence later
            characters for identifying some Capparis species.  occurs. Seeds are from one to numerous, and are
            However, high infraspecific variation is common in  generally brown in color when mature, immersed in
            collections identified as C. sicula, for example. More  a reddish or yellow pulp. Seed shape, color, and
            consistent vestiture is found on the abaxial part of the  dimensions have been noted to be of limited
            leaves, where density, thickness, and length of the  taxonomic value (Rivera et al., 2002).
            indument (Table 1) may be analyzed for each taxon.
                                                    TAXONOMIC TREATMENT
                                                    Capparis L., Sp. pl.: 503. 1753. TYPE: Capparis
              Spiny stipules developing at the base of the petioles  spinosa L.
            are absent in some species (e.g., Capparis orientalis)
                                                    Beautempsia Gaudich., Voyage Bonite Bot. Atlas: tab. 56.
            or are early shedding (e.g., C. hereroensis, C. ovata, C.
                                                        1842 [1844–46]. TYPE: Beautempsia avicenniaefolia
            spinosa). Stipule shape, color, direction of curvature  Gaudich., Voyage Bonite Bot. Atlas: tab. 56. 1842
            and decurrence at the base are distinctive characters  [1844–46].
            (Table 1).                              Busbeckea Endl., Prodr. Fl. Ins. Norf. 64. 1833. TYPE:
              Leaves are simple, not divided, alternate, with  Busbeckea nobilis Endl., Prodr. Fl. Ins. Norf. 64. 1833.
                                                    Colicodendron Mart., Flora 22(1) (Beibl.): 25. 1839. TYPE:
            petioles well differentiated. Leaf morphology fur-
                                                        Colicodendron yco Mart., Flora 22 (1) (Beibl.): 25.
            nishes distinctive characters (shape, texture, base
            type, apex type, presence and type of mucro) (Table 2).  Destrugesia Gaudich., Voyage Bonite Bot. Atlas: tab. 57.
            The size and, much less, the shape of the leaves are  1842 [1844–1846]. TYPE: Destrugesia scabrida Gau-
            variable within many species. Leaf size especially  dich., Voyage Bonite Bot. Atlas: tab. 57. 1842 [1844–
            depends on water availability and exposure to winds
                                                    Hombak Adans., Fam. 2: 402, 408. 1763. TYPE: Genus
            and sun during the growing season. Petiole length,
                                                        described referring to Lippi MS. (Manuscript list of
            although variable within species, can be sorted into  plants collected in Egypt by Lippi.) There are no
            three groups (Table 2).                     species associated with the genus in the protologue.
                                                        However, the inflorescence type, lack of leaves, and
                                                        origin (Lippi, hence Egypt) likely refer to Sodada
            INFLORESCENCES AND FLOWERS IN CAPPARIS SECT. CAPPARIS  decidua Forssk. (5 Capparis aphylla Roth).
                                                    Oligloron Raf., Sylva Telluriana: 109. 1838. TYPE:
              The flowers are solitary in the axil of the leaves.
                                                        Oligloron zeylanica Raf.
            This is a distinctive character for the section. In other  Olofuton Raf., Sylva Telluriana: 108. 1838. TYPE: Olofuton
            sections (except sect. Galeatae) the flowers form  racemosum Raf.
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