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248                       L. Llorens et al. / Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 56 (2014) 246e254

         Fig. 1. Map of the western Mediterranean basin showing the geographical distribution of the Thymus richardii populations analyzed. Numbers 1e5: population
         codes. Symbols indicate bioclimates (▫: temperate humid; ▵ supra-Mediterranean humid; þ: thermo-Mediterranean humid/subhumid; -: thermo-
         Mediterranean dry).
         each population three samples by plant from ten individuals were collected randomly. The sampled plants were >10 m apart,
         to avoid sampling from the same parent. Branches with leaves were collected from each individual and stored at  40 C until

         extracted for volatile fraction analysis. The woody parts were separated from the leaves, young branches and inflorescences.
         2.2. Climate data and bioclimatic index

            Climate datawere obtained from the meteorological station nearest to each study area. The data covered a period of 30 years
         for the Safor (Valencia) and Marettimo (Favignana) areas, and 20 years for the Konjic, Borci (Bosnia), Ibiza and Majorca areas.
            To investigate relationships between climatic factors and the composition of essential oils we used several bioclimatic
         indices (Rivas-Martínez et al. 2011) and the Giacobbe index (IG) (Giacobbe, 1938, 1959). The bioclimatic parameters inves-
         tigated are mostly related to summer, as this is the critical period for Mediterranean flora, and included: ETP, potential
         evapotranspiration; Ic, continentality index; It, thermicity index; Io, ombrothermic index; IG, summer drought index; PPv,
         summer precipitation for the three consecutive warmest months in the year; TPv, the sum of the monthly average tem-
         peratures for the three consecutive warmest months (Table 2).

         2.3. Essential oil extraction and analysis
            Simultaneous distillationeextraction (SDE) was performed for 2 h using a Likens and Nickerson device with dichloro-
         methane as the organic solvent. The extracts were dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to a 2 mL volume
         Table 1
         Geobotanical data for the studied populations of T. richardii. UTM: UTM coordinates; (*): TMed ¼ ThermoMediterranean; MMed ¼ MesoMediterranean;
         SMed ¼ SupraMediterranean; Temp ¼ temperate.
          Taxa (*)       Locality (UTM)   Altitude (m)  Bioclimate (*)  Community     Habitat
          1- Thymus richardii  Ibiza 31S 35E/43N  160e280  TMed dry  Brassico balearicae-Helichrysion  Subrupiculous. Limestone
            subsp. ebusitanus                                  rupestris (Asplenietea trichomanis)  rock crevices with
                                                                                      chasmophytic vegetation.
                                                                                      Sea breeze affected
          2- Thymus richardii  Sicily/Marettimo  160e450  TMed dry  Dianthion rupicolae (Asplenietea  Rupiculous. Limestone
            subsp. nitidus  33S 24E/42N                        trichomanis)           rock crevices with
                                                                                      chasmophytic vegetation.
                                                                                      Sea breeze affected
          3- Thymus richardii  Bosnia 1/Konjic-Spiljani  350  Temp/SMed  Peucedanion neumayeri  Slopes
            subsp. richardii  34T 25E/48N           humid      (Thero-Brachypodietea)
          4- Thymus richardii  Bosnia 2/Borci-Bjelasnica  800  Temp humid  Peucedanion neumayeri  Slopes. Dolomitophyte
            subsp. richardii  34T 25E/48N                      (Thero-Brachypodietea)
          5- Thymus richardii  Majorca/Puig Major 31S  1100e1300  SMed/MMed  Brassico balearicae-Helichrysion  Rupiculous. Limestone
            subsp. richardii  48E/44N               humid      rupestris (Asplenietea trichomanis)  rock crevices with
                                                                                      chasmophytic vegetation
          6- Thymus richardii  Valencia/La Safor 30S  550e650  MMed/TMed  Rosmarinion officinalis  Slopes. Dolomitophyte
            subsp. vigoi  73E/43N                   humid      (Rosmarinetea officinalis)
         (*) Vouchers specimen collected in the studied populations has been included in the Herbarium of Politechnic University of Valencia (VALA, n 7245e7251).

         Syntaxonomical nomenclature according to Ritter-Studni  cka, 1967 and Rivas-Martínez et al., 2001.
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