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Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 56 (2014) 246e254

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                               Biochemical Systematics and Ecology

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         Geographical and environment-related variations of essential

         oils in isolated populations of Thymus richardii Pers. in the
         Mediterranean basin

         L. Llorens  a, * , J.A. Llorens-Molina  b, 1 , S. Agnello  c, 2 , H. Boira  b, 3
         a  Laboratori de Bot  anica, Departament de Biologia, University of Balearic Island (UIB), Carretera de Valdemossa km. 7,5, 07122 Palma de
         Mallorca, Spain
         b  Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, IAM-UPV, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
          C.R.A. Unit  a di ricerca per il recupero e la valorizzazione delle specie floricole mediterranee (Palermo), S.S. 113, km 245.500, 90011
         Bagheria, Italy

         ar t i c l e i n f o            ab st ra c t

         Article history:                Composition of essential oils of different populations of Thymus richardii grex of six lo-
         Received 27 October 2013        calities from Bosnia-Herzegovina (Konjic, Borci), Spain (Majorca, Ibiza, Valencia) and Italy
         Accepted 24 May 2014
                                         (Marettimo, Sicily) were determined by GC/FID and GC/MS. The main constituents in most
         Available online
                                         of the samples were aromatic monoterpenes corresponding to non-phenolic cyclic com-
                                         pounds (p-cymene, g-terpinene). The highest monoterpene concentrations were found in
         Keywords:                       the Bosnian samples (70%), and the lowest in samples from the Balearic Islands (<30%;
         Thymus richardii
         Essential oils                  Ibiza and Majorca). Sesquiterpenes were the major component (average > 50%) in samples
         Chemotypes                      from Majorca with b-bisabolene (>40%) being the principal constituent. Discriminant
         Environmental factors           analysis (LDA) shows the differentiation of two chemotypes: A (phenol chemotype), with
                                         p-cymene and g-terpinene as characteristic compounds and B, with b-bisabolene and
                                         carvacrol, as major and significative compounds. The occurrence of the chemotypes was
                                         related to summer positive precipitation and to deep of soils.
                                                                           © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

         1. Introduction

            The plant family Lamiaceae is common in the Mediterranean region, with members exhibiting highly diversified ecologies.
         Species in the family constitute an important component of Mediterranean shrub vegetation, especially in dry and arid
         environments. Secondary metabolites produced by these plants play important ecological and biological roles. The diversity
         of biological activities of the essential oils of the Lamiaceae may be a consequence of their rich chemical diversity, and in part
         explains the large number of studies investigating the chemical composition of plants in this family, and its relationship to

          * Corresponding author. Tel.: þ34 61736638; fax: þ34 971173184.
            E-mail addresses: (L. Llorens), (J.A. Llorens-Molina), (S. Agnello), hboira@eaf.upv.
         es (H. Boira).
            Tel.: þ34 620248375.
            Tel.: þ39 091 909090; fax: þ39 091 909089.
            Tel.: þ34 676832096.
         0305-1978/© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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