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Migration of Pallid Harrier across the central Mediterranean

            East is clearly earlier than that in the central  Soc.Turkey 14: 2-5.
                                                   Arroyo, B. E., & King, J. R. 1996. Age and sex differences in
            Mediterranean; at Eilat, the majority occur
                                                     molt of the Montagu’s Harrier. J. Raptor Res. 30: 224-
            between the first week of April and 10th May  233.
            (Shirihai & Christie 1992; Yosef 1996) while at  Beaman, M. 1973. Bosphorus migration, autumn 1971. Bull.
            Cap Bon and the Strait of Messina comparable  Orn. Soc.Turkey 8: 3-4.
                                                   — & Jacobsen, F. 1974. Bosphorus migration, autumn
            dates would be between the fourth week of
                                                     1972. Bull. Orn. Soc.Turkey 10: 10-11.
            April and about 15th May. This difference may  Bendini, L. 1983. Specie ornitiche inanellate in altri paesi e
            be related to the fact that many spring migrants  riprese in Italian sino al 1977 compreso. Bollettino
                                                     dell’attività di inanellamento 1. I.N.B.S., Ozzano Emilia,
            through Israel are males, which both migrate
            earlier and have wintered farther north.  Bortoli, L. 1967. Migration et baguage des Oiseaux a El
               Finally, a double peak of immatures passing  Haouaria. Nature de Tunisie. Numero Special, Mai 1967.
            through the central Mediterranean is inter-  Cardelli, C., & Corso, A. In prep. Bird migration over the
                                                     Strait of Messina.
            esting. As shown in fig. 5, most juveniles pass
                                                   Corso, A. 2001. Raptor migration across the Strait of
            through the Strait of Messina in late April/early  Messina, southern Italy. Brit. Birds 94: 196-202.
            May, but there is also a small passage of juven-  — In prep.The influx of Pallid Harriers in Europe in 2000-
                                                     2002: a rare species recovering? Brit. Birds.
            iles through Sicily in mid March, which peaks at
                                                   — & Iapichino, C. 1998. I rapaci svernanti in Sicilia negli
            the end of that month or in early April (and is  anni 1990-1997. Alula 5: 125-130.
            often not apparent at Messina – hence it is not  Ferguson-Lees, J., & Christie, D. A. 2001. Raptors of the
                                                     World. Christopher Helm, London.
            obvious in fig. 5). This may reflect two different
                                                   Forsman, D. 1999. The Raptors of Europe and the Middle
            wintering areas, one much closer (perhaps in  East: a handbook of field identification. Poyser, London.
            Tunisia?) than the other. It may also be the case  Giordano, A. 1991.The migration of birds of prey and
            that during the record influx in Europe during  storks in the Straits of Messina. Birds of Prey Bull.4:
            2000-02, many juveniles wintered in North
                                                   Gustin, M., & Pizzari,T. 1998. Migratory pattern in the
            Africa (Corso in prep.).                 genus Circus: sex and age differential migration in Italy.
                                                     Ornis Svecica 8: 23-26.
            Acknowledgments                        Iapichino, C., & Massa, B. 1989. The Birds of Sicily. BOU
                                                     Checklist No. 11,Tring.
            First and foremost, we wish to thank the Swiss association  Kisling, M., Horst, B., & Hein, C. 1994. Die Beobacthung des
            Fondation Ellis Elliot for their generous support of this and
                                                     Vogelzugs im Fruhjahr der Jahre 1990-1992 am Cap
            other research projects.We wish to thank the following for  Bon/Tunisien und bei Messina/Sizilien am Beispiel der
            data, references, discussion and general help in many ways:
                                                     Greifvogel, Kraniche und Storche. Naturschutzbund
            Giovanni Albarella, Daniele Aliffi, Dan Alon, Ian J. Andrews,  Deutschland.
            Marco Borioni, Valerio Cappello, Sergio Celesti, Gianluca
                                                   Panuccio, M., Agostini, A., & Massa, B. In prep. Is the island
            Chiofalo, José Luis Copete, Roberto Gildi, Anna Giordano,  of Ustica a hot-spot for the spring migration of
            Marcello Grussu, Ricard Gutiérrez, Marco Gustin, Cristoph
                                                     raptors? Brit. Birds.
            Hein, Carmelo Iapichino, Renzo Ientile, Lionel Maumary,  Shirihai, H., & Christie, D. A. 1992. Raptor migration at
            Kevin Mayer Giuliano Monterosso, Guido Premuda, Marco
                                                     Eilat. Brit. Birds 85: 141-186.
            Preziosi, Deborah Ricciardi, Lucia Romano, Michael  —,Yosef, R., Alon, D., Kirwan, G., & Spaar, R. 2000. Raptor
            Sammut, Nir Sapir, I. & Dicky van den Velde, and many
                                                     Migration in Israel and the Middle East.A summary of 30
            others. Special thanks are due to Rob G. Bijlsma, Metehan  years of field research. IBRC & IOC, Eilat.
            Ozen and Reuven Yosef for help with references and data.
                                                   Snow, D.W., & Perrins, C. M. (eds.) 1998. The Birds of the
            Filippo Corso’s help was invaluable in various ways, and he  Western Palearctic. Concise edition.Vol. 1. OUP, Oxford.
            produced the figures for this paper.
                                                   Stronach, N. R. H. 1991.Wintering harriers in Serengeti
                                                     National Park,Tanzania. Afr. J. Ecol. 29: 90-92.
            References                             Sutherland,W. J., & Brooks, D. J. 1981. Autumn migration of
            Agostini, N., & Logozzo, D. 1998. Primi dati sulla  raptors, storks, pelicans and spoonbills at Belen Pass,
              migrazione primaverile degli Accipitriformi sull’isola di  southern Turkey. Sandgrouse 2: 1-21.
              Marettimo (Egadi). Riv. Ital. Orn. 68: 153-157.  Thiollay, J.-M. 1975. Migrations de printemps au Cap Bon
            —, —, & Panuccio, M. 2000.The Island of Marettimo: an  (Tunisie). Nos Oiseaux 33: 109-121.
              important bird area for autumn raptor migration.  Welch, G., & Welch, H. 1988.The autumn migration of
              Avocetta 24: 95-99.                    raptors and other soaring birds across the Bab-el-
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              G. M., & Shirihai, H. 2004. Soaring-bird migration over  Yosef, R. 1996. Sex and age classes of migrating raptors
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              Jordan. Sandgrouse 18: 35-45.        Zalles, J. I., & Bildstein, K. L. (eds.) 2000. Raptor Watch: a
            Andrews, J., Beaman, M., Fisher, P., Hereward,T., Heubeck,  global directory of raptor migration sites. BirdLife
              M., Morton, M., Porter, R., & Round, P. 1977. A ‘new’  Conservation Series No.9, Cambridge.
              raptor migration route through NE Turkey. Bull. Orn.
            Andrea Corso, Via Camastra, 10-96100 Siracusa, Sicily, Italy
            Carmela Cardelli, P.zza Santa Maria La Nuova, is 433-98100 Messina, Sicily, Italy
            246                                               British Birds 97 • May 2004 • 238-246
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