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4 E. Borghi and V. Garilli

Downloaded by [vittorio garilli] at 22:43 08 June 2016  Figure 1. Distribution of genera of the regular echinoid family Temnopleuridae and of two genera of the closely related family Trigono-
                                                        cidaridae (data from Mortensen 1943; Smith & Kroh 2011). 1, Pentechinus Philip & Foster, 1971, Oligocene (Australia); 2, Paradoxe-
                                                        chinus, Upper EoceneÀLower Miocene (southern Australia); 3, Tremaster, Pliocene (France); 4, Temnechinus, PlioÀPleistocene
                                                        (England, The Netherlands, France); 5, Coptechinus, upper Miocene (France) to Pliocene (England, France); 6, Temnopleurus Agassiz,
                                                        1841, Pliocene to Recent (Indo-Pacific), Recent (South Africa, Mozambico, Malay Archipelago, China Sea, Japan, Australia); 7, Temno-
                                                        trema, Miocene (Australia), Pleistocene (Japan), Recent (East Africa, Mauritius, Indian Ocean and Indo-West Pacific, Japan, Australia,
                                                        Hawaii); 8, Erbechinus Jeannet in Lambert & Jeannet, 1935, Pliocene (Java), Recent (Kei Islands); 9, Opechinus, Eocene (Pakistan),
                                                        Miocene (Quatar and Saudi Arabia, India, Indonesia), Pliocene? (Indonesia), Recent (Indo-West Pacific); 10, Microcyphus Agassiz, in
                                                        Agassiz & Desor, 1846, Miocene (Java), Pliocene (Indonesia), Recent (Red Sea, East Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, Ceylon, Andaman
                                                        Sea, Philippines, Sumatra, Japan, Kei Islands, Australia); 11, Mespilia Desor, in Agassiz & Desor, 1846, Recent (Indo-West Pacific);
                                                        12, Salmacis Agassiz, 1841, Recent (South Africa, Indian Ocean, Indo-West Pacific); 13, Salmaciella Mortensen, 1942, Recent (Mozam-
                                                        bico, Seychelles, Indo-West Pacific, Australia); 14, Amblypneustes Agassiz, 1841, Recent (Australia and New Zealand); 15, Holop-
                                                        neustes Agassiz, 1841, Recent (Australia and New Zealand); 16, Paratrema Koehler, 1927, Recent (Indo-Pacific); 17, Placentinechinus
                                                        gen. nov., Early Pleistocene (Italy); 18, Hypsiechinus, Recent (Atlantic, around Iceland) (Trigonocidaridae); 19, Monilechinus, middle
                                                        Miocene (Portugal) (Trigonocidaridae). Possible routes of dispersal from the oldest descendants (as from Mortensen 1943 and Kroh &
                                                        Smith 2010) are outlined.

                                                        unconformities, as eccentricity-controlled clusters over     been formed in a temperate shelf environment in deposi-
                                                        periods of 100À400 kyr, suggesting correlation with sap-     tional settings not dissimilar to that of Puglia today
                                                        ropel clusters ‘0’, ‘A’ and ‘C’ (Roveri & Taviani 2003,      (Tropeano & Sabato 2000, with references).
                                                        with references).
                                                                                                                        The site in Calabria (southern Italy, Fig. 2A, E) belongs
                                                           The sites in Puglia (south-eastern Italy, Fig. 2A, D)     to the predominantly late Neogene succession deposited
                                                        belong to the late Cenozoic succession that overlies the     in the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin (Zecchin et al. 2004)
                                                        Mesozoic rocks of the Apulian Platform, a relict of Meso-    located in the Ionian side of the Calabrian Arc, an inde-
                                                        zoic rifting that became part of the foreland of the south-  pendent arcuate terrane that connects the southern Apen-
                                                        ern Apennine chain during the Neogene (D’Argenio             nine chain and the east-trending Sicilian Maghrebides and
                                                        1974; Channel et al. 1979; Ricchetti 1980). The youngest,    separates the Ionian and Tyrrhenian basins (Zecchin et al.
                                                        PlioÀPleistocene, part of the Cenozoic succession was        2006, 2012 with references). This structural domain con-
                                                        deposited after the mid-Pliocene rapid increase of subsi-    sists of pre-Mesozoic polymetamorphic nappes and local
                                                        dence in the Apulian foreland, forming a carbonate domi-     remnants of a Mesozoic to Cenozoic succession (Zecchin
                                                        nated system in shallow, shelf environments (particularly    et al. 2012). The succession of the Crotone Basin lies on
                                                        well represented by the Calcarenite di Gravina Forma-        the crystalline basement of the Sila unit and its oldest
                                                        tion). The carbonate system was subsequently drowned by      deposits are late Serravallian, though the most common
                                                        siliciclastic deposits derived from the Apennines thrust.    outcrops are of PlioÀPleistocene age. These outcrops
                                                        The Calcarenite di Gravina has been interpreted as having    mainly consist of two units deposited in outer shelf to
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